Introduction to Literature

Let us firstly see some pleasures tried to communicate by the following work of a poem:

Heaven is what I cannot reach!
The apple on the tree,
Provided it do hopelss hang,
That “heaven” is, to me.

The color on the cruising cloud,
The interdicted ground
Behind the hill, the house behind, –
There Paradise is found!

(Emily Dickinson – Heaven Is What I Cannot Reach!)

Or, by story like below:

Wit and Learning were the children of Apollo, by different mothers; Wit was the offspring of Euphrosyne, and resembled her in cheerfulness and vivacity; Learning was born of Sophia, and retained her seriousness and caution. As their mothers were rivals, they were bred up by them from their birth in habitual opposition, and all means were

so incessantly employed to impress upon them a hatred and contempt of each other, that though Apollo, who foresaw the ill effects of their discord, endeavoured to soften them, by dividing his regard equally between them, yet his impartiality and kindness were without effect; the material animosity was deeply rooted, having been intermingled with their first ideas, and was confirmed every hour, as fresh opportunities occurred of exerting it. No sooner were they of age to be received into the apartments of the other celestials, than Wit began to entertain Venus at her toilet, by aping the solemnity of Learning, and Learning to divert Minerva at her loom, by exposing the blunders and ignorance of Wit.

Thus they grew up, with malice perpetually increasing, by the encouragement which each received from those whom their mother’s had persuaded to patronize and support them; and longed to be admitted to the table of Jupiter, not so much for the hope of gaining honour, as of excluding a rival from all pretensions to regard, and of putting an everlasting stop to the progress of that influence which either believed the other to have obtained by mean arts and false appearance.

At last the day came, when they were both, with the usual solemnities, received into the class of superior deities, and allowed to take nectar from the hand of Hebe. But from that hour Concord lost her authority at the table of Jupiter. The rivals, animated by their new dignity, and incited by the alternate applauses of the associate powers, harassad each other by incessant contests, with such a regular vicissitude of victory, that neither was depressed.

It was observable, that at the beginning of every debate, the advantage was on the side of Wit; and that, at the first sallies, the whole assembly sparkled, according to Homer’s expression, with unextinguishable merriment. But Learning would reserve her strength till the burst of applause was over, and the languor with which the violence of joy is always succeeded, began to promise more calm and patient attention. She then attempted her defence, and by comparing one part of her antagonist’s objections with another, commonly made him confute himself; or, by showing how small a part of the question he had taken into his view, proved that his opinion could have no weight. The audience began gradually to lay aside their prepossessions, and rose, at last, with greater veneration for Learning, but with greater kindness for Wit.

Their conduct was, whenever they desired to recommend themselves to distinction, entirely opposite. Wit was daring and adventurous; Learning cautious and deliberate. Wit thought nothing reproachful but dullness; Learning was afraid of no imputation, but that of error. Wit answered before he understood, lest his quickness of apprehension should be questioned; Learning paused, where there was no difficulty, lest any, insidious sophism should lie undiscovered. Wit perplexed every debate by rapidity and confusion; Learning tired the hearers with endless distinctions, and prolonged the dispute without advantage, by proving that which never was denied. Wit, in hopes of shining, would venture to produce what he had not considered, and often succeeded beyond his own expectation, by following the train of a lucky thought; Learning would reject every new notion, for fear of being entangled in consequences which she could not foresee, and was often hindered, by her caution, from pressing her advantages, and subduing her opponent.

Both had prejudices, which in some degree hindered their progress towards perfection, and left them open to attacks. Novelty was the darling of Wit, and antiquity of Learning. To Wit, all that was new was specious; to Learning, whatever was ancient was venerable. Wit, however, seldom failed to divert those whom he could not convince, and to convince was not often his ambition; Learning always supported her opinion with so many collateral truths, that, when the cause was decided against her, her arguments were remembered with admiration.

Nothing was more common, on either side, than to quit their proper characters, and to hope for a complete conquest by the use of the weapons which had been employed against them. Wit would sometimes labor a syllogism, and Learning distort her features with a jest; but they always suffered by the experiment, and betrayed themselves to confutation or contempt. The seriousness of Wit was without dignity, and the merriment of Learning without vivacity.

Their contests, by long continuance, grew at last important, and the divinities broke into parties. Wit was taken into protection of the laughter-loving Venus, had a retinue allowed him of Smiles and Jests, and was often permitted to dance among the Graces. Learning still continued the favorite of Minerva, and seldom went out of her palace, without a train of the severer virtues, Chastity, Temperance, Fortitude, and Labour. Wit, cohabiting with Malice, had a son named Satyr, who followed him, carrying a quiver filled with poisoned arrows, which, where they once drew blood, could by no skill ever be extracted. These arrows he frequently shot at Learning, when she was most earnestly or usefully employed, engaged in abstruse inquiries, or giving instructions to her followers. Minerva therefore deputed Criticism to her aid, who generally broke the point of Satyr’s arrows, turned them aside, or retorted them on himself.

Jupiter was at last angry that the peace of the heavenly regions should be in perpetual danger of violation, and resolved to dismiss these troublesome antagonists to the lower world. Hither therefore they came, and carried on their ancient quarrel among mortals, not was either long without zealous votaries. Wit, by his gayety, captivated the young; and Learning, by her authority, influenced the old. Their power quickly appeared by very eminent effects: theatres were built for the reception of Wit; and colleges endowed for the residence of Learning. Each party endeavoured to outvie the other in cost and magnificence, and to propagate an opinion, that it was necessary, from the first entrance into life, to enlist in one of the factions; and that none could hope for the regard of either divinity, who had once entered the temple of the rival power.

There were indeed a class of mortals, by whom Wit and Learning were equally disregarded; these were the devotees of Plutus, the God of riches; among these it seldom happened that the gayety of Wit could raise a smile, or the eloquence of Learning procure attention. In revenge of this contempt they agreed to incite their followers against them; but the forces that were sent on those expeditions frequently betrayed their trust; and, in contempt of the orders which they had received, flattered the rich in public, while they scorned them in their hearts; and when, by this treachery, they had obtained the favour of Plutus, affected to look with an air of superiority on those who still remained in the service of Wit and Learning.

Disgusted with these desertions, the two rivals, at the same time, petitioned Jupiter for re-admission to their native habitations. Jupiter thundered on the right hand, and they prepared to obey the happy summons. Wit readily spread his wings and soared loft, but not being able to see far, was bewildered in the pathless immensity of the ethereal spaces. Learning, who knew the way, shook her pinions; but for want of natural vigour, could only take short flights: so, after many efforts, they both sunk again to the ground, and learned from their mutual distress the necessity of union. They therefore joined their hands, and renewed their flight; Learning was borne up by the vigour of Wit, and Wit guided by the perspicacity of Learning. They soon reached the dwellings of Jupiter, and were so endeared to each other, that they lived afterwards in perpetual concord. Wit persuaded Learning to converse with the Graces, and Learning engaged Wit in the service of the Virtues. They were now the favorites of all the powers of heaven, and gladdened every banquet by their presence. They soon after married, at the command of Jupiter, and had a numerous progeny of Arts and Sciences.

(Samuel Johnson – ALLEGORY OF WIT AND LEARNING)

For many people, literary works have been used as mean of either mind or soul expression. When words are too small to carry intentions, poem appears as solutions. When mind is bounded by tenses, story comes out to release man’s thoughts.

Human is gifted by the affective domain that strongly affects their life and interactions. This existence of affective domain that includes how human responds to certain atmospheres makes things in their life more colorful. Interference of feelings, thoughts, deep and long contemplation in such response appears in some of works that man would express in order to release his burden, tensions, joys or to communicate things he endures. These works of man in some ways would be so much artistic that, to understand or get involved within certain atmospheres, we need to stand on particular view or to sit on the side of man’s contemplation chair. Of course, it may need extra work for our mind would sweat for arriving at similar things intended by the author.

If we trace back, human history shows that the oldest works are written by the Sumerian entitled Epic of Gilgamesh. The Epic of Gilgamesh was written in form of poem drawing courage, companionship, and everlasting life. It was found around 2700 B.C. Then works in literature develops and touched some area of religious things, nature, romance, nationalism, or other philosophical fields while nowadays nuances of literary works begin to cover symbolism or psychological aspects (from Wikipedia).

Literature has been taken into account as important subject for students who study English particularly in area of literary studies in English. This subject has been prepared systematically and gradually so that students would be at ease in reading, understanding, examining and producing any artistic work for their own interest. This course of Literature I will mostly come up with simple introduction of English literature. When it is about the introduction to literature, descriptions would touch only the surface of each literature genre discussed in this book. The details of each literature genre will be further designed for students at advanced level.

There are some objectives which are going to achieve by this book. Firstly, it aims at giving clear understanding to students about three genres in literature. Secondly, the book tries to explain the characteristics and elements of each genre, and finally some exercises are provided to examine students’ understanding on such explanations.

To achieve the above objective, this book is proposed to carry out five units. The first introduction begins by giving understanding on literary terms mostly used in this book.  This is important to provide clear understanding of certain terms that would mostly appear in this book. In unit I, I would firstly describe the framework of this book that students could have the idea of what they would learn during the semester. It is notably skeleton of the book or in other terms would explain the book at a glance. Furthermore, unit 2 is about basic understanding. This unit would provide fundamental things students have to know before learn the following units.

In addition, unit 3, 4, and 5 is the cores of this book. It talks a lot about literature genre that initially begins by giving clear definition of each genre, type, characteristics, and elements conveyed by the genre, and is finally ended by exercises. The literature genre is flown gradually from the simple to the complicated one to examine. Unit 3 deals with prose that is specified into fiction-prose, unit 4 concerns about drama and the last unit 5 will talk about poetry.

There are things students have to focus on. Firstly, the operational terms which work on literature study. Secondly, understanding of genre types and its elements and thirdly, how to imply those elements in making evaluation of any literature work. In addition, studying literature in many occasions would examine some old works from certain human era. It may mean that such works would employ old dictions that nowadays are unusual or rare to use in daily communication. To avoid further learning obstacles, dictionary indeed is needed to find meaning of certain word based on its literal understanding and context as well.

Studying literature may not be so much easy as it requires active reading and deep understanding on certain diction, intentions, situation and context as well. However, it may be fun for we could find other bliss apart of our daily lives.

Happy studying, then.

(Taken from Herri Mulyono, Introduction to Literature)

<<Kursus Bahasa Inggris Online Gratis, Klik Disini>>

Syllabus Kursus Bahasa Inggris Online yang saya rekomendasikan

Beberapa bulan terakhir ini saya memang jarang posting di blog ini, karena saya harus menyelesaikan beberapa buku-buku (seperti Introduction to Literature, Basic English Structure, The Practice of TEFL in Indonesian Context, etc – jika anda tertarik untuk memiliki salah satu buku tersebut silahkan kontak saya dengan meng-klik About Me) selain saya juga harus memberikan seminar pengajaran di wilayah Jakarta.

Sebulan terakhir ini saya sibuk diminta membuat syllabus untuk beberapa kursus bahasa Inggris yang baru launching di wilayah Jakarta. Banyak diantara nya yang sekedar meminta saya memberikan review dan revisi sana sini untuk syllabus kursus mereka yang telah berjalan

Sebagai dosen bahasa Inggris dengan latar belakang S2, di salah satu perguruan tinggi terkemuka di Jakarta – apalagi spesialisasi saya adalah ‘method of teaching’ – saya mendapat bayaran yang cukup mahal hanya untuk melakukan review suatu syllabus kursus bahasa Inggris yang sudah berjalan, tentu saja review yang secara scientific saya berikan ulasan dan revisi untuk melahirkan syllabus yang unggul

Pelatihan Pembelajaran Bahasa InggrisSekitar 1 minggu di akhir Ramadhan, saya merasa tertarik untuk mengamati bagaimana sepak terjang kursus bahasa Inggris ONLINE yang sangat marak di dunia maya ini. Hasilnya memang sangat mengenaskan dan menggelikan. Saya katakan mengenaskan karena hampir 100% kursus bahasa Inggris yang diselenggarakan secara online tidak memiliki syllabus. Mungkin mereka menganggap bahwa mengajar bahasa Inggris itu mudah, bahkan kalau perlu seorang pengemis di Amerika pun bisa membuat kursus bahasa Inggris online atau mengajar secara offline.

Seberapa pentingkah Syllabus dalam pencapaian kesuksesan belajar Anda?

Okey mari kita lihat ada 3 kelompok remaja yang akan mendaki gunung, sebut saja kelompok Badak Liar, Kerbo Hitam dan kelompok Merpati Putih. Kelompok Badak Liar dengan santai langsung berjalan melakukan pendakian untuk sampai ke puncak nya, Kelompok Kerbo Hitam lain lagi mereka minta didampingi seorang penduduk kampung yang memang dulu pernah bertapa di puncak nya. Kelompok Merpati Putih lain lagi, sebelum pendakian ia mencoba sourcing mencari narasumber yang memiliki ‘Peta Jalan’ atau Route – betul ‘peta jalan’ itu tidak gratis, bahkan narasumber itu memiliki beberapa penawaran ‘Peta Jalan’ ada yang full panorama sungai, ada route full panorama tebing, dsb. Tidak perlu saya tanya lagi pada Anda, kelompok mana yang memiliki probabilitas paling tinggi untuk sukses sampai di puncak dengan aman, cepat dan nyaman? tentu saja Merpati Putih – karena mereka mendaki dengan menggunakan Peta Jalan, atau gampangnya syllabus. Ga asal naik ..

Begitulah gambaran kursus bahasa Inggris online yang marak saat ini. Hampir semuanya sifatnya ‘ayo jalan aja – kita mendaki bareng2’, ujung2nya boro-boro sampai puncak, malah tersesat, bahkan kembali pulang, membatalkan perjalanan. Begitulah, banyak sekali kursus bahasa Inggris online yang sifatnya hanya komersil sekedar menjaring peluang remaja yang lagi mempuyai minat mendaki.

Sebuah Kursus Online dengan syllabus yang membuat saya terkagum

Awalnya memang sekedar stumble upon, ga sengaja saya melihat link sebuah kursus bahasa Inggris online dari google ‘ dengan kata kunci ‘kursus bahasa Inggris online”,  saya klik dan inilah yang saya baca di website kursus online tersebut

Saya Tantang Anda, dalam 4x Belajar DIJAMIN MAMPU diskusikan gambar ..belajar dari NOL, langsung praktek conversation tanpa basa-basi, tanpa Grammar2an …dengan sistim Full Conversation, dalam waktu 2 Minggu saya siap buktikan bahwa ANDA BERBAKAT !! ..Ikut tantangan GRATIS nya, silahkan download ebook dan Audio MP3 gratis tanpa syarat – tanpa daftar2an – tanpa resiko. Materi yang Anda pelajari dijamin 100% belum pernah Anda dapati dilembaga manapun, walaupun Anda sudah berpetualang ke 1000 kursus bahasa Inggris sekalipun – DIJAMIN  !!’

Weleh2…apalagi ini? saya tersenyum lebar membaca iklan dari sebuah kursus online tersebut. Okey, no problem. Saya kunjungi link tersebut dan saya coba download materi tantangannya. Seperti biasa untuk me review sebuah syllabus kursus bagi saya sangatlah mudah, karena memang itu profesionalisme saya, bahkan mungkin bisa saya kerjakan sambil bernyanyi kecil. Dan itu yang juga terjadi saat saya download materi I nya, tapi begitu saya mulai mengamati …menit demi menit ..saya merasakan ada sesuatu yang berbeda dalam materi tersebut

Jujur saya tersentak saat selesai me review materi I nya, .ini benar2 kursus yang tidak asal jadi, saya yakin 100% pasti memiliki syllabus – dan syllabusnya sangat excellent. Bagimana tidak, dari beberapa kursus offline yang memiliki syllabus baru kali ini saya melihat rancangan syllabus (syllabus design) yang integrated, tersusun secara sistimatis dari teknik pengajaran (technique of teaching), pendekatan pengajaran (approach), metode pengajaran (method of teaching), sampai kepada teori belajar yang mendasari nya semua nya integrated.

Langsung saya pasang mesin profesionalisme saya sebagai seorang pemerhati metode pengajaran bahasa Inggris,  saya cermati dari teknik pengajaran yang diterapkan yaitu guided oral composition yang mampu memaksa siswa bicara, dan menggiring tanpa terasa pada penguasaan struktur kalimat yang lebih kompleks, pendekatan yang diterapkan diwarnai oleh aural-oral approach yang berlandaskan audio lingual method, serta pembentukan skill nya yang diwarnai kental oleh behaviousme, misalkan saya lihat dalam salah satu latihan bicara nya

Narrator          : do you come from London?

Siswa               : no, I don’t come from London

Narrator          : good !!

Narrator          : I don’t come from London

 

Anda mungkin tidak melihat sesuatu yang istimewa disitu bukan? Tetapi kalau Anda seperti saya seorang profesionalisme dan pemerhati dalam Method of Teaching, mampu melihat bahwa ada warna teori psikologi aliran behavioursme disitu, yaitu Stimulus – Response – Reward – Reinforcement. Artinya Bahwa langkah memberikan pertanyaan secara scientifik adalah guru bertanya (stimulus), lalu siswa menjawab (response), lalu guru memberikan pujian (reward), dan terakhir guru menguatkan kembali jawaban tersebut (reinforcement). Sangat excellent, bahkan sampai kegiatan terkecil pun (tanya-jawab) kursus ini menerapkan langkah2 yang sangat scientific berlandaskan ilmu pengajaran Bahasa Inggris yang ada.  Okey, jika Anda tidak melihat sesuatu yang excellent didalamnya wajar saja, karena memang ini bukan spesialisasi Anda. Ibarat saya mendengarkan lagu Rhoma Irama atau Mansyur S. bernyanyi, saya tidak melihat sesuatu yang istimewa didalamnya kecuali sekedar menikmati. Hehe ..

Materi Pelatihan nya yang sangat integrated

Sampai sejauh itu saya masih berusaha melakukan review, kali ini saya lanjut kepada materi yang dipresentasikan yang katanya total 32 materi selama 4 bulan. Dalam materi GRATISAN nya, hehe…tentu saja saya tidak perlu mengeksplorasi 32 materi itu. Disamping sebagai seorang pemerhati spesialisasi Method of Teaching, saya juga sebagai seorang konsultan penelitian pendidikan. Kursus tersebut memberikan materi pelatihan yaitu

Pronunciation

Receptive Speaking*

Basic Structure

Basic Listening

Introduction to Language

Anda lihat yang saya beri tanda * … No words can say, saya tidak perlu lagi mengomentari, dari materi-materi pelatihan yang diberikan saja saya sudah berikan nilai excellent karena memang pembentukan Conversation itu harus diawali dari pembentukan kemampuan PRONUNCIATON. dan ini sangat 100x langka bahkan nyars tidak pernah Anda dapatkan materi ini kecuali Anda kuliah di jurusan Bahasa Inggris. Banyak sekali kesalahpahaman dalam komunikasi antara orang Indonesia dengan orang asing hanya karena masalah pronunciation, dimana kita tidak bisa membedakan antara pengucapan bunyi beg dengan bag, antara they dengan day, dsb. Itulah sebabnya mengapa materi pelatihan pronunciation ini sangat WAJIB dibentuk di awal perjalanan belajar Bahasa Inggris.

Materi pelatihan berikutnya adalah Receptive Speaking, Anda tahu apa yang membuat saya terkagum dan memberikan nilai excellent pada admin kursus tersebut?? lihat kata ‘receptive’ ..ini memiliki makna yang membuat semua pakar method of teaching terkagum-kagum, karena memang tahap pembentukan skill berbahasa dimulai dari receptive skill dulu barulah melangkah pada productive skill – tetapi secara jitu dalam kursus tersebut dituliskan receptive speaking, excellent kembali !!

Belum lagi materi Introduction to Language yang membuka pemahaman hakikat Bahasa Inggris sesungguhnya itu apa, lalu Basic Listening yang ternyata langsung di narasikan oleh native speaker dengan aksen British English, serta Basic Structure. Saya mau bilang apa lagi?? tidak ada lagi yang saya perlu review kecuali saya harus mengenal the man behind the gun yang mengelola kursus bahasa Inggris online tersebut yang menggunakan nama e-Compusoft Online English Training

Masukan saya sebagai Pengayaan Kursus Online yang excellent itu

Tidak ada gading yang tak retak, bagaimanapun excellent nya syllabus kursus tersebut, dan bagaimana pun saya YAKIN bahwa apa yang dijanjikan memang pasti terbukti, janjinya begini

‘Langsung praktek, tanpa basa-basi. Dari NOL, dijamin dalam 4x belajar Anda mampu diskusikan gambar,saya siap buktikan bahwa Anda berbakat !!..

Janji tersebut saya memang tidak membual. Saya sebagai profesional, pemerhati dalam bidang Method of Teaching ikut memberikan kepastian pada Anda bahwa apa yang dijanjikan memang pasti terbukti, saya tidak mau mempertaruhakan reputasi saya dengan begitu saja memberikan rekomendasi pada Anda, tapi hal tersebut memang benar.

Namun …

Adalah lebih baik jika kursus tersebut diberikan TAMBAHAN materi, saya katakan tambahan materi Structure yang berlimpah, mengingat para peserta yang khususnya masih sekolah, sangat membutuhkan pengayaan materi Structure guna menunjang pelajaran bahasa Inggris di sekolah. Hanya itu – diluar itu semuanya EXCELLENT. Saya merekomendasikan pada Anda, saya pertaruhakan reputasi saya untuk itu. Bahwa tidak ada kursus bahasa Inggris online terbaik, yang memiliki syllabus yang excellent selain daripada e-Compusoft Online English Taining

Perpaduan syllabus e-Compusoft dan MyEnglish01

Setelah mengenal baik dengan pengelola e-Compusoft, saya saling bertukar pengalaman atas profesioanlisme masing-masing, akhirnya saya memberikan saran pengayaan kepada Mr. Teguh Handoko untuk materi pengayaan berupa structure, dan plus saya ikut menyarankan agar biaya kursus pelatihan Bahasa Inggris online FULL CONVERSATION dikurangi biaya nya, mengingat banyak sekali pelajar dan mahasiswa yang membutuhkan belajar bahasa Inggris secara tepat langsung pada penguasaan 4 skill berbahasa. Dari situ beliau meminta saya membuat pengayaan materi dalam structure maka lahirlah www.e-compusoft.com dengan materi structure yang berlimpah NAMUN dengan biaya pelatihan yang lebih rendah.

Baca selengkapnya>>

 

Regret Formula: Subject + should + have + v3 ==== look at the example below:

I regret because I hit his car = I should not have hit (V3) his car

Positive                                                          negative

I regret because I didn’t give her a flower = I should have given her a flower

Negative                                                                                              positive

I regret because yesterday I didn’t come to school = I should have come to school yesterday

I regret because yesterday I didn’t eat = I should have eaten yesterday

I feel bad because I refused (rejected) her love = I should have received (accepted) her love == using antonym rather than “not”

I feel bad because I didn’t go to Bali = I should have gone to Bali

Formula = Subject + should + have + v3

I shouldn’t have leaved her in the rail way station (negative)

Fact = I leaved her (positive) = antonym verb

Regret = I regret that I leaved her in the rail way station

Report: An Introduction

By: Herri Mulyono

Report can be defined as a piece of text that represents information about a subject. It is proposed “to classify” and or “to describe” using facts about the subject parts, behavior, and qualities.” A report might be similar with a descriptive text. Yet, what makes different is the subject (talked in report paragraph) is usually GENERAL rather than particular. For example: “Skin” rather than an individual person’s skin.

Similarly with other types of text, a report can be composed by three elements; introduction, body, and conclusion. The first introduction begins with a brief description about the issue (subject). This introduction might cover clear definition about the subject. Then, the body paragraph provide more detailed information about the subject that the conclusion will give either comprehensive analysis about the subject or the writer’s subjective opinion.

A report text can be easily composed by paying more attention to the use of simple present tense (that use verb 1) and some technical term of the subject being discussed such as Chemistry: molecule, calories or Math: integral, equity.

The example of Report text can be seen below:

A galaxy is a collection of stars and other astronomical bodies, including planets, comets and asteroids.

Galaxies come in different shapes and size. This include the spiral, barrel-spiral and elliptical. Our galaxy, called the Milky Way, is approximately 100.000 light years in width and contain over 100 billion stars.

At this point in time, no one knows the exact number of galaxies in the universe. Astronomers are learning more and more about them every day. (Adapted from book Type of Text)

Below you’ll see in comment some more samples on Report written down by my students:

Narrative: an Introduction

By Herri Mulyono

Narrative is a piece of text which is proposed to amuse, entertain and to relate with extravagant experiences delivered in many alternatives. While dealing with certain experiences, a narrative might be put similarly with what is called by recount which is closely about personal facts or other individual incidents or events.

In simple way, a narrative text is structured firstly by having orientation which introduces the readers about the setting of the story; either the place setting or time, or might be both of them. It is also to recognize who are the players or any one who takes account in the story. After the orientation is set, then story flows to an introductory stage that later move to the complication where certain conflicts are found between the players. The final stage of resolution is revealed as problem solving stage when the conflict is intensively down.

In addition, in some narrative texts, some author might also put the stage or re-orientation which tries to make evaluation toward the previous orientation. Also they place coda at the end of the story for the readers to make any evaluation of the incidents or every flows in the story.

Our curriculum (see standard competence of English by Diknas: 2003) has described widely that narrative could be also recognized by its lexio-grammatical structure such as : 1) it focuses on specific and usually individualized, participants, 2) it uses of Material Processes (and in this text,

Behavioral and Verbal Processes, 3) the use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes is devised to lead the story, 4) it uses of temporal conjunctions and temporal Circumstances, and finally 4) the narrative uses of past tense.

Here, below you could see some narratives found by my students:

SPEECH

A speech is actually the activity of transferring message, ideas, thought or other intention from Speaker to the audience.

The important things in giving a speech are:

  • How your message is understood by other people
  • You’re not playing around with your words, but straight to the point or to the issue

Genre: Explanation and Exposition

What should you do?

Choose the topic

Topic is not a title

Topic: Global warming

A Title has to be very specific than a topic. It has to be about a fact, an issue or even particular events

Break down (Specify=make it more specific):

Possible title:

  1. The dangerous of global warming
  2. The effect ….
  3. Let’s save our earth

Topic about: Wildlife

Possible title:

  1. The almost extinct of Bubut Java
  2. Under the blue sea

Your topic:

Your title:

Make an outline

Give small introduction of yourself

State your topic and the title

Talk why you’re interested with the topic/ title

Give small background

Body of the speech

1)      Give definition

2)      What and why (provide facts – read some books or find some resources from internet)

3)      A good speech has to offer solution (How)

Conclusion

Salutation

Ladies and gentleman, all my friends

The honorable …..

(You have to make repetition)

Have your own draft

Hati ku terbagi dua, …

Diantara Khadijah dan Aisyah

Hatiku membelai Khadijah,

wanita mulia berparas bijak sana

Tetapi, hatikupun melirik Aisyah …

wanita cantik bersinar kecerdikan

Aduhai Khadijah yang dirindu hati

Lembut nada katamu, bertentram dalam sanubari

Aduhai Aisyah yang dimimpi hati

Panjang candamu, menghibur diri

Adakah Khadijah berjalan jauh dipematang mentari

tapi kemudian hati berteriak untuknya berlari

Adakah pula Aisyah berselimut diri

tapi kata hati pada nya untuk berseri

Duhai Khadijah, mata hati

Duhai Aisyah, cantik diri

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