IDEOLOGI KAUM REFORMIS


A Book Review

By: Herri Mulyono

There are two main issues emerged by Achmad Jainuri in explaining history and struggles of Muhammadiyah and people in early period of its movement; ideology and reformation. The term Ideology in general view is shown as “set of beliefs and goals of a social or political group that explain or justify group’s decisions and behavior”[1] that in a very simple way, Jainuri explains it similar as “organized collection of ideas.”[2]

The term “ideas” in Jainuri’s book mostly appears to provide clear understanding on what is meant by ideology beside “thought” and “view on religion” as Jainuri himself uses those terms in “ideas to reflect Muhammadiyah’s interest and social commitment” (p. 8) and “… it is not a coincident that the most important ideas from Islamic modern scholar in 19th and 20th century were derived from early reforming movement.” (p. 17). For the practice, the term ideology then is shown as collection of ideas and believes which are established to achieve their purposes. Jainuri give details that the ideology of Muhammadiyah is intended strongly to give obvious direction, justification, efforts and defense of the organization for the conduct of reformation in certain religion aspects.

The reformation carried out by Muhammadiyah and people in early period of its movement as explained by Jainuri was not about to bring out a new ideology on Islam or new establishment of Islamic scholar rather than “purification.” The use of word “purification” in discussion of his book of course cannot be put similarly with the renaissance movement in darkness age of 14th to 17th centuries – Catholic Church might feel to shame for using that darkness age but mostly refer to middle age.[3] The renaissance was emerged to cut down the roles of church in daily human lives as it interfered too much and was used for many political purposes. The renaissance was to much talking about how community encouraged themselves to against “corruption and hypocrisy in the Catholic Church” in 15th century.[4]

In contrast, the term “purification” brought out to the surface by Jainuri (e.g. on p.14, p.17 and p.18), mostly refer to the interference of intellectual in interpreting the religion; particularly refer to Koran and al-hadits and how the religion is practiced in daily interaction. Such idea seems close to What Muhammad Abduh suggests that the Islamic teaching might run under the basis of rationale and thought as well. This conduct emerges the reforming action of Muhammadiyah people to expose and interpret Islam on the basis of intellectual properties. This seems later to oppose traditional practice of Islam as mostly shown by the NU peoples as many Muhammadiyah activists made extreme changes in religious life. In its early movements, Muhammadiyah activists often clashed with other Islamic practices which are commonly conducted by the traditional NU people. The practice of hisab in effort of determining of the beginning of Ramadhan and Syawal for example has become debate between the two organizations that sometime arises tension from the two’s followers.

In stating clear issue of reformation conducted by the activists of Muahmmadiyah, Jainuri exploits two main areas; they were reformation on religion domain and social aspects. These two areas later continue to practice until recent movements of Muhammadiyah. On domain of religion, the reformation was to emerge the understanding and practices of religion on the basis of cognitive perspective (p. 100), willingness of each Moslem to carry out his duty (p. 105), and open tolerance and plurality as well (p. 112). For the perspective of human cognitive, Islam was fundamentally established as ideology and inspiration (p. 77) while then Moslem was to keep his balance between materialistic and spiritual happiness (p. 77). In this regard, Moslem is to keep genuine characteristics of religious practices by avoiding misleading influences.

Furthermore, Janinuri explains that through the reformation on religion domain, Islam has to be reconstructed firstly by giving the fundamental understanding of religion and its practices. This conveys ethics and ways to understanding the religion under cognitive perspective, ijtihad, and tarjih (p. 99-105). Secondly, this principle generates the philosophy of tolerance that Muhammadiyah views the absence of single legitimacy of religion practices (p. 177). In this sense, Jainuri clarifies that there is no absolute decision for each group of religion to attempt and might differ from others in understanding religion on certain contexts and situations.

Reformation in social aspects fundamentally reconstructs new concept of learning, that Jainuri says, the main goal of it is merely to achieve bless of God (p. 89) by implementing knowledge on social life (p. 91). In such practice, every Moslem has responsibility to serve his society (p. 91). Muhammadiyah raises issue that all practices of religion have to tailor with social responsibility (p. 147-178). This means the achieving goals is certainly indicated by successful daily social life and vice versa. On other word, religion practices fundamentally take account on social life conditions.

For the implementation of the above ideology and reformation both in religion domain and social aspects; Jainuri emphasizes three points that could be recommendation for our leaders, politicians, workers and all people that; tailoring religion to social life must be synergized and proven by real works, not merely talks but actions, and limits numbers of comments while working.


[3] Chatolic Encyclopedia, available at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12765b.htm

[4] Paper #049201 :: The Catholic Church during the European Renaissance

Four Language Learning Strategies:

Comparing the Lower to the Higher Students

Written by Herri Mulyono

Background

In monitoring theory, Krashen establishes two terms of language acquisition and language learning. The term language acquisition concerns to process of acquiring language which is mostly exploited in natural ways. This process of language acquisition is established by unconscious ways on how an individual acquires his language. The other language learning in Krashen’s theory deals with individual consciousness whereas an individual is on his awareness in achieving the target language.

Instead Krashen’s two ways in achieving language handle two different areas of learners’ unconsciousness and consciousness, those two areas are correlated each other and take account in learner’s effort in acquiring the target language. Within practices of the theory, Krashen points out that the language learning must be devised to monitor the language acquisition in keeping the target language acquired properly.

In acquiring the target language, learners are mostly assisted by strategy in language learning that undergo to improve the knowledge of target language.[1] This language learning strategy play greater roles as it interferes learners’ previous knowledge to establish new information. On other words, learners afford to achieve the target language (new language) by using their previous interlanguage knowledge (or first language). In this context, four terms are emerged in relation with their uses as strategies in language learning; namely transfer, interference, generalization and simplification.

This article is intended to discuss the practice of transfer, interference, generalization and simplification as learner’s language learning strategy. The discussion firstly will bring out to surface the understanding of those four terms and how they would be practiced in language learning activities. Furthermore, the practice of the four ways in language learning strategy would compare between the lower and higher students on how they perform the strategies to acquire the target language. This comparison then will be examined that from such examination conclusion will be made to give overview on the language learning strategies and their practices in language learning classroom.

The Understanding Four Learning Strategies

In general, as shown by Dewey (1910) learning strategies refers to human attempts in recognizing problem by employing the presence cognitive structure, formulate hypothesis testing by recalling established knowledge in order to achieve comprehensive solution.[2] In relation with language learning, strategy is understood as learners’ efforts to achieve certain learning goals. Ellis, as quoted by Chen, notes down that language learning strategy could be explained on “how learners improve specific skills” (within language).[3] Both understanding carried out by Dewey and Ellis bring out similar view that both explain alternatives one might endure in obtaining certain purpose of learning. The endurance covers up two similar things; cognitive structure and the existence of prior knowledge as basis for further achievement.

Suparman in his slide points out four terminologies in learning strategies; they are transfer, interference, generalization and simplification. He explains the term transfer as employing previous experiences to succeed further learning. On other words, transfer could be seen using the existence of information to acquire new information. In learning foreign language, transfer means utilizing learners’ first language knowledge (in this article refer to Bahasa Indonesia) to learn the target language (English). The transfer might be brought out by common features between the two languages either vocabulary, meaning, or basic language structure.

However, the process of transfer might not always benefit the learning new language (English) that previous knowledge (or existing experience of mother language) would always be different in their language properties. This may reason failure of certain aspects from second or foreign language learning in some extent is led by learners’ knowledge of their first language. On other words, learners’ prior experience of their first language does not seem to facilitate their second language learning. This negative effect of transfer is recognized by term interference.

In addition, Suparman explains that interference occurs as sequence of generalization and simplification.[4] Generalization is a general thing established from specific cases or categories and polarized by two thinking ways; inductive and deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning takes place when particular instances move to general things while the other deductive does the contrast.The other simplification is defined as process of uncomplicating of reducing events to a common denominator, to as parts of features as possible.[5]

Methodology

This study was proposed to compare students’ learning strategy between lower group students and the higher ones. In comparing the four learning strategies between lower group of students and the higher ones, this study uses descriptive analysis under qualitative design. The study was carried out at SMA Negeri 92 North Jakarta (Senior high school of 92 North Jakarta) using web-base instruction. Although it was expected for total of 39 students from social class students, the study only covered 12 out of 39 which were chosen purposefully from low achieved and high achieved students. It was due to time limitation in conducting this study.

For the purpose of this study, the 12 students represent 6 groups that each group comprised of two students. 3 groups were taken from lower student while the other 3 groups were from higher students.

In addition, this study analyzed students’ writing activities in English learning forum at www.learningcenter.in/forum where students pointed out certain topic of discussion and wrote some argumentative comment toward of it. Students’ comments were mostly in form of simple sentence. The comments were written in one until four sentences for each. For this study, those comments would be undertaken as data to analyze using concept of language learning strategies; transfer, interference, generalization and simplification.

Technique of data analysis is conducted by coding. Coding will be carried out firstly by translating the sentence into Bahasa Indonesia. Each group of words then would be numbered and analyzed in previewing the occurrence of transfer, interference, generalization and simplification.

(continued..)


[1] Andrew D. Cohen. July 1996. SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND USE STRATEGIES: CLARIFYING THE ISSUES.A revised version of a paper originally prepared for presentation at the Symposium on Strategies of Language Learning and Use, Seville, Spain, December 13-16, 1994. P. 2-3.

[2] Suparman, Drs. M.A. Ph.D. 2009. Cognitive Domain of Human Learning. Lecturing Slide of Psycholinguistics. Jakarta: Graduate School of UHAMKA. P.8-11.

[3] Yiching Chen. March 2005. Barriers to Acquiring Listening Strategies for ESL Learners and Their Pedagogical Implication. TESL-EJ Journal. Vol. 8. No. 4. A-2.

[4] Suparman. Op.Cit.

[5] Ibid

Contrasting Derivational to Inflectional Morphology

Written by: Herri Mulyono

Derivation, which is studied in derivational morphology, could be seen as process of emerging new word by adding affixes on certain stem or basic word. It this general view, derivation is similar to word-formation that affixes might either cause change of word class such as noun to noun, verb into noun, noun to verb, adjective to verb etc. or result to the emergence of new word; semantically or grammatically.

Process of word class changing generally could be viewed on how each affix would function as marker. In derivational morphology, some affixes are introduced in group of noun markers, verb markers, adjective markers, and adverb marker.

In English vocabularies, noun markers are shown in some suffixes like –cy (as in consistency), -ion (as in action), -ty (as in continuity), -ship (as in partnership), -al (as in denial), -er (as in worker), -or (as in corruptor), -ist (as in journalist), -ce (as in confidence), -ing (as in working), -ate (as in decorate), -logy (as in morphology), -0 (as in drum). In addition, noun not only drives from a verb (as in propose-proposal), an adjective (as in sweet-sweetness), but also from noun itself (as in company-companion). However, noun could not drive from any adverb.

Verb markers, similar to noun markers, function to change certain word (word class) into new action word (verb). In English verb markers are like –en (as in lighten), -ize (as in characterize), en- (as in endanger), -0 (as in tie). Verb or action word derives particularly from noun (as in joy-enjoy), adjective (as in modern-modernize), and adverb (as in fast-fasten). Although, there are some action words which derive from noun without having them added by any affixes (or marked with zero marking, -0). Those words morphologically have dual grammatical categories; like house (noun) – house (verb).

In relation with the use of adjective, Spears (1991, in Hanafi, 2006: 13) says that adjective function to “modify” and either to make additional or control meaning of noun or nominal. Adjective markers are devised to form adjective from noun (like suffix –ic as in organic, -ous as in nervous, -ing as in ending, -ed as in rejected, -ive as in protective, -al as in instrumental. Similar to noun characteristic, adjective is possible to derive from its class, that is, by adding –ial suffix like confident-confidential.

Adverb makers in derivational morphology are used to form adverb in modifying verb, adjective or even adverb. In English, -ly suffix (as in clearly), very (as in very clever), and -0 (as in slow) are example of some adverb makers.

In contrast to derivational morphology, an affix in inflection does not change word class rather than it is used merely as a signal of a grammatical property (Spears, 1991 in Hanafi, 2006: 19). Although inflection might provide additional affix on a word base, it does not move the word from certain word class to others. Inflection might exist in some forms dealing with verb agreement, person and number agreement, gender and number of agreement, intensifier, genitive markers and plural markers of nouns.

For example:

a. Verb agreement

Susi come-s to school everyday

3SG.Press

b. Person and number agreement

My brother-s are playing in the yard

3PL-brother PL

c. Gender and number agreement

Huma y-jlis-aani fid daaari

Dual male-sit.PRES-DUAL in door

They (two males) sit at the door

d. Intensifiers

He looks very sad

e. Genitive/ possessive markers

Rany’s blackberry

EARLY WARNING SYSTEM – UJIAN NASIONAL (UN)

Oleh: Herri Mulyono,

Anda mengajar di kelas XII??

Ada perasaan was-was tentang nilai UN siswa anda??

Bagaimana mengetahui kemungkinan nilai siswa anda pada UN 2009 ini?

Jika jawaban anda “YA” maka anda merasakan hal yang sama dengan saya sebagai salah seorang pengajar mata pelajaran yang di UN-kan. Tiap hari waktu anda dikonsumsi untuk mengajar dan membahas soal-soal serta melakukan TRYOUT baik secara mandiri atau memang kehendak sekolah. Atau, sering juga TRYOUT dilakukan untuk mengukur keberhasilan siswa dalam menjawab soal-soal yang sebenarnya ditujukan “untuk sebagian orang” bagaimana supaya “posisinya tidak jatuh” akibat jatuhnya nilai siswa.

Tapi yang menjadi permasalahan adalah, analisa soal hanya difokuskan pada berapa siswa yang lulus dan tidak lulus tiap Tryout sesuai dengan kriteria yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah. Guru diwajibkan untuk menganalisa soal sesuai dengan SKL dan mendeteksi indikator-indikator mana saja yang sering muncul atau jarang tampil dalam soal UN.

Walaupun usaha diatas benar dan dapat dijadikan patokan soal UN 2009, tapi sangat jarang guru membuat prediksi berapa nilai yang siswa dapat raih dalam UN 2009 nanti. Atau, berapa perkiraan nilai siswa pada UN 2009 nanti? Dan terkait hal ini lah hasil nilai-nilai tryout dapat digunakan sebagai panduan guru untuk memprediksi nilai minimum ataupun nilai maksimum siswa pada UN 2009 nanti.

Prediksi nilai siswa pada UN 2009 yang akan saya jelaskan sangat erat kaitannya pada Early Warning System – UN, yaitu seberapa mampu kita mendapat peringatan dini terhadap kasus-kasus ketidak lulusan siswa kita. Artinya, dengan mendapatkan peringatan dini kita dapat lebih waspada serta mampu memberikan bantuan dini baik secara personal maupun group, baik secara temporal maupun intensive kepada mereka yang dalam prediksi tidak lulus.

Bagaimana membuat Early Warning System (EWS) untuk mata pelajaran anda?

Hanya dua prasyarat; 1) hasil-hasil nilai tryout pada mata pelajaran anda, 2) Standar Deviasi dari nilai-nilai tersebut. (Untuk hal ini jika anda memiliki pertanyaan bisa berdiskusi dengan saya via email ataupun website saya, atau jika anda memiliki metode yang lebih baik dapat disebarkan kepada guru-guru yang lain).

Sebagai contoh; saya akan menampilkan nilai salah satu murid saya A dengan hasil nilai 6 tryout: 70, 70 53, 53, 70, dan 72. Saya ingin memprediksi bagaimana nilai dia pada TO ke 7? Berapa range nilai yang mungkin dicapai oleh siswa tersebut.

Tahap pertama, gunakan formula statistic standar deviasi (silahkan bertanya guru mata pelajaran matematika untuk menghitung standar deviasi), atau pada perhitungan dengan Microsoft excel gunakan rumus; =stdev(nilai1,nilai2,nilai3,dst) pada kolom formula. Standar deviasi, dalam pandangan saya, sangat berguna untuk mengetahuan kemencengan sebuah data dari nilai reratanya. Artinya seberapa suatu data dapat mencapai titik tertinggi dan seberapa jauh suatu data dapat mencapai titik terendah.

Dari perhitungan data-data hasil nilai tryout siswa diatas, maka diperoleh angka S=9.1. hal ini berarti nilai data siswa tersebut kemungkinan akan bertambah 9.1 point atau berkurang 9.1 point dari nilai reratanya.

Kedua, cari nilai reratanya. Untuk contoh diatas nilai rerata siswa tersebut untuk 6x Tryout adalah 64.7.

Ketiga, cari pertambahan dan pengurangan nilai tersebut. Dari nilai rerata cari nilai tertinggi kemungkinan siswa tersebut dapat memperoleh; yaitu 64.7+9.1 = 73.7 dan cari nilai terendahnya dengan menghitung 64.7-9.1 = 55.6.

Dari perhitungan diatas, dapat terprediksi nilai tertinggi A kemungkinan 73.7 dan nilai terendah adalah 55.6. Dengan menggunakan standar kreteria kelulusan, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada TO ke-7 siswa A dapat lulus (standar kelulusan mata pelajaran minimal 5.5)

Hitung persentase kemungkinan A dapat nilai lebih dari 5.5 dengan cara hitung jumlah T0 (7 kali), jumlah nilai yang lebih dari 5.5 pada TO 1-6 (4, 5 dengan nilai tertinggi TO7), maka kemungkinannya adalah 5/7 x 100%, yaitu 71%.

Hasil yang saya peroleh untuk TO ke-7 siswa A adalah nilai 62 (berada pada range 55.6 – 73.7).

Hal ini membuktikan prediksi saya untuk range nilai siswa bisa diprediksi (saya sedang mencari perhitungan yang lebih akurat, bukan sekedar range nilai lagi, doakan ya..).

Silahkan menggunakan perhitungan tersebut untuk memprediksi nilai siswa anda. Atau anda bisa mendownload dari link berikut untuk menggunakan simulasi. Simulasi EWS UN

INGAT! Simulasi ini merupakan sistem peringantan dini saja, bukan penentu nilai UN sesungguhnya. Jika anda ahli statistik, silahkan di koreksi dan dikembangkan sehingga bermanfaat bagi yang lain.

Jika anda merasa artikel ini sangat membantu anda, silahkan di share melalui sosial media dibawah ini.

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Aduh gimana sih ini pak dosen … kok malah buat mahasiswa bingung

Oleh: Herri Mulyono

Beberapa waktu yang lalu saya menerima keluh kesah beberapa mahasiswa yang katanya “dibantai” dalam sidang skripsi. Banyak yang berkomentar bahwa sidang skripsi seperti halnya berhadapan dengan malaikat maut (walau sepertinya sih dilebih-lebihkan saja). Mulai dari perilaku dosen penguji yang arogan serta arah pertanyaan yang mulai keluar arah dari materi sidang itu sendiri. Tapi yang anehnya adalah .. (seperti tutur mahasiswa-mahasiswa itu) banyak dosen yang tidak ingin dibantah serta superioritas bahwa pendapatnya adalah sesuatu yang absolute dan tidak bisa dipatahkan. Ya … mungkin saya ingin membenarkan pendapat saya dahulu ketika para mahasiswa-mahaiswa itu datang mengajukan proposal penelitian dengan desain kualitatif; “Sanggup debat dengan para doctor dan magister itu?” Tanya saya dengan senyum simpul… “Sepertinya kamu tidak akan bakalan menang beradu argumen dengan mereka?” Ya… tak ayal kemudian saya menyarankan desain kuantitatif kepada mereka; sedikitnya mereka bisa punya dasar data yang mereka kumpulkan dan analisa sehingga kemudian bisa sedikit dijadikan pegangan ketika sidang skripsi.

Tapi, … tidak semua dosen bisa terima ketika mereka tersudutkan dengan fakta bahwa apa yang mereka debatkan itu ternyata tidak terbukti dengan fakta yang telah dikumpulkan oleh mahasiswa…. Akhirnya; mucul pertanyaan-pertanyaan baru yang sepertinya keluar dari norma-norma akademis dan lebih berkesan “menyerang” ketimbang “menguji.”

Yang anehnya … ketika si dosen mulai “kalap” atau “khilaf” dalam “penyerangan” itu .. revisi-revisi baru pun muncul diluar konteks keilmuan yang seharusnya… argumentasi struktur kalimat ditambahkan .. atau sub-bab baru muncul pada “tempat yang seharusnya tidak ada.” Lalu yang menjadi pertanyaan adalah; “Apakah dosen tersebut cukup mempuni untuk benar-benar menjadi seorang dosen yang memiliki kredibilitas dalam keilmuan?” atau “Dosen abal-abalan?” (maaf kalau agak sedikit kasar).

Kemudian, mahasiswa-mahasiswa tersebut menunjukkan kepada saya bukti-bukti revisi yang harus mereka kerjakan. Sebagian lain memperlihatkan beberapa sub-bab baru yang harus ditambahkan serta rantai teori yang tidak pernah habis dituliskan. Lalu kata saya; “Apa gelar dosennya?” Para mahasiswa tersebut kompak menjawab; “S-2, kok pak.” Sambil membolak-balik lembar revisi; “Masa sih, dosen sekelas S-2 harus merevisi seperti ini…”

“Memang mereka (dosen-dosen itu) lulusan mana, sih?” sedikit saya menyahut diskusi para mahasiswa itu.

Tidak ada jawaban. Mereka diam seribu bahasa.

Keheningan sesaat kemudian hancur dengan tawa saya melihat isi bab 5, yang seharusnya menjadi kesimpulan dan seran, harus dirubah dengan kesimpulan, temuan (penjabaran rinci tentang temuan-temuan), dan saran menggantikan rekomendasi untuk penelitian selanjutnya (mungkin bisa dipandang dalam saran terdapat rekomendasi, tetapi kenyataan tidak ada sama sekali, dan saran yang diberikan tidak berlandaskan hasil temuan yang diperoleh). Saya mencari dimana logikanya, bukannya bab4 telah diuraikan banyak tentang temuan-temuan dalam penelitian. Dan yang lebih aneh; kenapa formula korelasi pearson harus digantikan dengan rumus t-test untuk penelitian korelasi sederhana dua variable (walaupun t-test bisa digunakan untuk mengukur signifikansi korelasi, namun bagaimana bisa kalau perhitungan r-nya belum atau tidak ada?). Dimana logika berfikirnya??

Kalau memang dosen tersebut tidak mengerti, .. kenapa mahasiswa yang harus menjadi korban pemikiran mereka yang buntu?? Atau, kenapa tidak bersikap bijaksana dengan mengatakan ketidak tahuan mereka?? “Takut dibilang bodoh?” …

Sebagai penutup; saya ingin mengutip pembicaraan kami dengan (Alm) Prof. Dr. Siswoyo pada akhir-akhir kuliah kuantitatif research tahun 2002 yang silam… “Anda-anda ini (mahasiswa) adalah orang yang baru belajar menulis … ya jangan dibuat susah.”

Funny stories, spoof and anecdote are sort of genre which are often founded in our teaching learning process at high school. Those genre types are proposed to entertain the readers with particular funny things. The following are some samples of funny story, spoof and anecdote which are collected by my students at SMA Negeri 92 North Jakarta. Those stories are shown in the comment below:

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Hi visitors, I'm sorry my mobile is not currently available. If you need things to discuss, please drop me an email: herrimulyono@gmail.com (Maaf, untuk sementara no HP saya tidak bisa dihubungi, silahkan email jika ada yang perlu di diskusikan) ------ Email saya terdahulu hyn02@yahoo.com sudah tidak aktif mulai akhir tahun 2010 karena banyak sekali gangguan (hecker) yang masuk dan mengirim email (juga conversation) dengan nama saya. Mohon untuk tidak mengirim email kealamat hyn02@yahoo.com. Abaikan setiap posting saya terdahulu yang mengggunakan email tsb. Terima kasih

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