Principle of Education, Private Notes
By: Herri Mulyono
This course is to discuss and analyze concepts and theories on education as one of discipline of academic sciences to be the resources in predicting and applying in Indonesia in the frame of guiding and directing the growth and development of children since the birth to adults on basis of the potentialities, competence on talents which they have.
Two roles of human in life:
- Homo educandum, which means person who needs to be educated; e.g. child
- Homo educandus, which means person who must educate; e.g. adult
Theory and Concept of Science
Theory is the science comes from many experiences on something frequently and it is tested the truth, then it composes logically, lucidly and clearly, and use for guidance for action.
Concept is the frame of thinking on something that it can be explained clearly and detail so someone can understand it.
A concept can be an abstract and concrete. The abstract concept can be like money, animal while the concrete concept can be like Rp. 100 and lion.
According to Sigmon Frud, human comprises of:
– Id, lower personality (principle of reality); like wishing, desire
– Ego, idea (the principle of idea)
– SuperEgo, to steer and control Id and Ego (conscience)
Fundamentals Meanings of Education
The term education conveys two basic meanings; 1) to educate, and 2) educare (from Latin) which means to pull out, to bring out. Wilhelm Wund (from experimental psychology 1875) at Leipzig University) says Education is from “educare” or to pull out.
Research mentions that human body has many hidden potentials (such as skill, talent, gifted, thought, speaking ability, intelligence, motive, etc.) or power that the aim of education is to pull out those hidden potentials to be reality and useful.
The Formulation of Education
Education is formulated by: (Culturaam Et Homo Sapiens)
1) Thinking (philosophy)
Plato provides the nature in two nuvuo
a. Organic, such as:
Flora (grow-develop but no movement-has generation but no desire),
Animal (grow-develop-moving-has generation and desire)
Human beings (grow-develop-moving-generation-passion-thinking)
Devil (grow-moving-influencing to be bad)
b. An Organic, such as stone, water, soil, land, sand, etc.
2) Human need
Two reasons human need education:
Homo educandum: to have to be taught
Homo educandus: who educate/ teacher
3) History (religion including tradition)
The term philosophy comes from the latin of Philein and Sophia. Philein means much thinking something deeply while Sophia means virtue or wisdom.
According to Socrates, philosophy is radical thinking which is delivered holistically and in depth. In this opinion, philosophy covers not only the motivation to respond all out coming inquires but also deliver analysis on the answer human may give.
In the view of science discipline, philosophy is the discipline concerned with the questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).
Some of outstanding Indonesian Education Philosopher are:
– Ki Hajar Dewantoro
– RA Kartini
– Muh. Syafei
– Ki Ahmad Dahlan
– Rohana Kudus
– Rahmah El Yunusiah
– Dewi Sartika
Roles of Education in Social Order
Social order is the special social situation that influences people in its environment.
There are some pointers in social order:
1) Tradition (under developing country)
2) Transitional Order (preparing to be developing country)
3) Modern Society (establishing country)
Why does Education become the essence of Culture?
1) By having proper education, people would come into some understanding on norms and other codes of conduct in human relation
2) Education could anticipate further development of human own culture
The Profession of Teaching
Profession is an occupation visually by involving relatively long specialized preparation on the level of higher education and governed by its own code of ethics.
Components of Education
- Homo educandus: people who teach like teacher, educator, parents, leader
- Objective of education
Education aims at enabling students or children to be intelligent, responsibility and mature, having sense of belonging, responsible to god nation and their surrounding
- Environment (Milleu) is something in surrounding which gives influence a little or much unconsciously such as textile, spectacle, book, blackboard etc.
- Subject matter
It is what is going to teach like religion, good charity, good action, behavior, manner.
- Evaluation in form of reward or punishment.
Long Life Education VS Life Long Education
Long life education : to get education in the rest of life, or as long as life, from
the birth up to death or from carrying up to the death
Life long education : to get the life long by means of healthy, vitamin, sport,
mental hygiene, regular life
Pioneer of life long education:
- Islam – Muhammad
There is a hadits say:
“Gain the knowledge from carrying up to death”
- Edwin R Guthril (1886-1959)
“condition” (conditioning theory) – the primary law of association by contiguity.
- Sigmund Freud
“All stimuli come into our brain by mean of ears caught by brain and then keep in the rest of life, because the brain consists of 20 million neurons. Every neuron has one function as biological unit. Among them is to remember.”
According to Freud, human mind consists of three levels:
– under conscious
Reasons of the need of Long life education
- The age of human is long, so it stimulates him to seek, collect the science and technology.
- Homo sapiens have many needs for himself, family and so on.
- Homo sapiens are homo socious (social creature), so he cannot live without other people’s help.
- Experience is the best teacher, so human learns from milleu, surrounding, nature, accident, animals, flora, fauna, etc.
- Social change, human must learn and get survived.
- Every human has potentiality to speak because he has speech organ for the activation he ought to learn.
Motive and Motivation
Motive and motivation – comes from the word of motivum (latin).
Two types of motive
- intrinsic motive, the motive which come from human internal
- extrinsic motive, the motive that comes from milleu or surrounding without consciousness or accidentally by chance.
Motivation is the noun of the motivated consciousness; provoke, to be active in participation at any activity, to drive motivation come from outside by planning and destination. For example: Teachers motivate his student to be diligent in learning and make the readiness to face national exam.
According to Donald O Hebbin:
Motivation is a drive and conceptual nervous (CCNS).
There are four ways for teacher to hoe or stimulate his student act to be active in learning, let learning done or together in-group as follow:
The Duty and Responsibility of Education
Duty is an obligation or something ought to do on behalf of institution, or believer by a person, a group of person, because who gets duty that is regarded or is obligation to do, such obligation being usually moral, but sometimes legal or conceptual.
Responsibility is the duty of each person, to try to understand what the command good is and to act in accordance with or the duty of a group to share in community, at school or educational institution undertaking (responsibility) in relation with the welfare of individual or group, in this case is to guide, to educate, and to make students clever and to be good person and citizen.
Informal Environment of Education
Description : home or nuclear family (father, mother)
Responsible : parents (father, mother)
Purpose : to prepare children for the future by means of daily life
to make students become good social members
Subject matters : tradition, religion, day life, social norms
Time period : no limitation for education but generally up to get married
Formal Environment of Education
Description : school or other the institution of education
Reason : parents have limited capability to educate their children
lacking of time or academic science
school is managed by expert in many kinds of scientific
knowledge especially teacher with their CBTE
(competency based teacher education)
Purpose : Stated in the law of Sisdiknas No. 20/ 2003 Chapter II
“The national education aims at developing the ability and shaping the nature, as well national civilization in order to develop the mentality of nation for the development of the students so that they can become religious and pious people to the God, have good character, erudite, creative, independent and become a democrat citizen and responsible to the nation.”
Time Period : depend on level of education, level of institute
Non-formal Environment of Education
Description : social academic environment, like social organization
Responsibility : social leaders, executive, religious expert
Reason : social leader should guide people as a whole to be a good
Purpose : to make everybody to be person in his daily life one
another salute and take care the peace, no quarreling or
unbelievable each other
Subject matters : skill, social welfare, languages, virtue, social regulation
Time period : generally life long education