Cyber Bullying and Violence toward Minority Ethnic

Cyber Bullying and Violence toward Minority Ethnic

Herri Mulyono

 

The word “bullying” suddenly came out as national issue particularly in education community as Erie Rachman, an academy student run by ministry (previously: department) of home affair found dead in last 2000. Since then, bullying cases have colored media and educators are challenged for finding best solution to overcome. Whilst many people see bullying as representation of violence, Whitted and Dupper (2005) extends its coverage of bullying for verbal or non-verbal abuse as well as harassment proceeding violence. The environment of bullying also broadens as 13-year old Megan Meier was committed to suicide as sequence of cyberbullying act in internet social network last 2006.

With number of more than 55 million users in early 2012 as reported by Internet World Stat, Indonesia posits 8 of 20 top internet countries. This number of internet users may figure out how information is massively distributed and consumed by millions of people with varied backgrounds. For certain intellectuals, this massive access of internet is seen as potential media for sending ideas or thoughts and claiming their rightfulness. Unfortunately, this potential of internet usage has been applied to spread hates towards groups that claim against others. In many group discussions at internet webpages, number of cyberbullying attempts increases.

Indonesia has been much respected for its successful political transformation since past 1998 and well recognized as one of most democratic countries over the world. Exclusively, British ambassador once appraised the country for its democratic political transition that British would have spent for hundred years. However, Indonesian’s flourishing name as most democratic country has not completely brought the country out from conservative social class onto even upper modern or post-modern community classes. The way people think and behave in such traditional social class are apparently driven by ideas or thoughts of certain intellectuals on behalf of religion or other faith rather than either logical reasons or respect of individual uniqueness characterized by modern and post-modern communities. This diversity of opinion would then raise number of claims for being the rights and bring people’s force to approve.

Long before the violence towards Ahmadiyah and Syia’ group of people, for example, war of claims has been existing for years over internet webpages. Different groups or ethnics involved in the war claims to be the right out of 73 sects mentioned by Prophet Muhammad. Every group uses different standard in justifying their rightness and others’ faults as different of view points widely spread after the first khalifa’ Abu Bakr was chosen to lead muslim community at the time. The propaganda of being the right has been worked out over internet webpages as this act would be efficient in cost, time and able to reach great number of attention. Unfortunately much propaganda is often constituted by number of harassment of other group contradicted and misbehavior that has been directed purposefully as cyberbullying.

As nature of bullying act, cyberbullying is also part of group activity that Besag in 1989 once noticed for such aggressive behavior would excessively insult other groups in order to achieve supremacy over their foes. Information about opinions, thoughts and claims and number of misbehave comments made are used to bully other groups, and expect to posit certain group for the right claim.

The excess of cyberbullying unfortunately does not only harm group in virtual community but also real violence attempt in real life. Looking back at the Meier’s 2006 cyberbullying case has put evidence how the cyberbullying is able to reach real life violence. Furthermore, linkage between the traditional bullying and cyberbullying proven by Steffgen and Konig from University of Luxembourg may indicate that cyberbullying attempt toward minority groups in Indonesia would possibly impact on real violation as experienced previously by the Ahmadiyah and Syia’s.

Growing maturity in internet behavior may minimize attempt of cyberbullying toward certain group or ethnic and prevent its impact on real life. Maturity in accessing internet may be reflected upon open-minded behavior to admit plurality as shown by other advanced modern and post-modern communities. Respecting people for their own uniqueness in practicing belief or faiths is seen as alternative for avoiding any kind of bullying and keep life in peace and harmony. Furthermore, the maturity in internet behavior is also grown by doing cross-checking toward information distributed in internet webpages. As number of hoax or wrong (fabricated) information increases, it is wise for not filing judgment on the first impression and objective decision shall be made from varied perspectives.

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IDEOLOGI KAUM REFORMIS

IDEOLOGI KAUM REFORMIS


A Book Review

By: Herri Mulyono

There are two main issues emerged by Achmad Jainuri in explaining history and struggles of Muhammadiyah and people in early period of its movement; ideology and reformation. The term Ideology in general view is shown as “set of beliefs and goals of a social or political group that explain or justify group’s decisions and behavior”[1] that in a very simple way, Jainuri explains it similar as “organized collection of ideas.”[2]

The term “ideas” in Jainuri’s book mostly appears to provide clear understanding on what is meant by ideology beside “thought” and “view on religion” as Jainuri himself uses those terms in “ideas to reflect Muhammadiyah’s interest and social commitment” (p. 8) and “… it is not a coincident that the most important ideas from Islamic modern scholar in 19th and 20th century were derived from early reforming movement.” (p. 17). For the practice, the term ideology then is shown as collection of ideas and believes which are established to achieve their purposes. Jainuri give details that the ideology of Muhammadiyah is intended strongly to give obvious direction, justification, efforts and defense of the organization for the conduct of reformation in certain religion aspects.

The reformation carried out by Muhammadiyah and people in early period of its movement as explained by Jainuri was not about to bring out a new ideology on Islam or new establishment of Islamic scholar rather than “purification.” The use of word “purification” in discussion of his book of course cannot be put similarly with the renaissance movement in darkness age of 14th to 17th centuries – Catholic Church might feel to shame for using that darkness age but mostly refer to middle age.[3] The renaissance was emerged to cut down the roles of church in daily human lives as it interfered too much and was used for many political purposes. The renaissance was to much talking about how community encouraged themselves to against “corruption and hypocrisy in the Catholic Church” in 15th century.[4]

In contrast, the term “purification” brought out to the surface by Jainuri (e.g. on p.14, p.17 and p.18), mostly refer to the interference of intellectual in interpreting the religion; particularly refer to Koran and al-hadits and how the religion is practiced in daily interaction. Such idea seems close to What Muhammad Abduh suggests that the Islamic teaching might run under the basis of rationale and thought as well. This conduct emerges the reforming action of Muhammadiyah people to expose and interpret Islam on the basis of intellectual properties. This seems later to oppose traditional practice of Islam as mostly shown by the NU peoples as many Muhammadiyah activists made extreme changes in religious life. In its early movements, Muhammadiyah activists often clashed with other Islamic practices which are commonly conducted by the traditional NU people. The practice of hisab in effort of determining of the beginning of Ramadhan and Syawal for example has become debate between the two organizations that sometime arises tension from the two’s followers.

In stating clear issue of reformation conducted by the activists of Muahmmadiyah, Jainuri exploits two main areas; they were reformation on religion domain and social aspects. These two areas later continue to practice until recent movements of Muhammadiyah. On domain of religion, the reformation was to emerge the understanding and practices of religion on the basis of cognitive perspective (p. 100), willingness of each Moslem to carry out his duty (p. 105), and open tolerance and plurality as well (p. 112). For the perspective of human cognitive, Islam was fundamentally established as ideology and inspiration (p. 77) while then Moslem was to keep his balance between materialistic and spiritual happiness (p. 77). In this regard, Moslem is to keep genuine characteristics of religious practices by avoiding misleading influences.

Furthermore, Janinuri explains that through the reformation on religion domain, Islam has to be reconstructed firstly by giving the fundamental understanding of religion and its practices. This conveys ethics and ways to understanding the religion under cognitive perspective, ijtihad, and tarjih (p. 99-105). Secondly, this principle generates the philosophy of tolerance that Muhammadiyah views the absence of single legitimacy of religion practices (p. 177). In this sense, Jainuri clarifies that there is no absolute decision for each group of religion to attempt and might differ from others in understanding religion on certain contexts and situations.

Reformation in social aspects fundamentally reconstructs new concept of learning, that Jainuri says, the main goal of it is merely to achieve bless of God (p. 89) by implementing knowledge on social life (p. 91). In such practice, every Moslem has responsibility to serve his society (p. 91). Muhammadiyah raises issue that all practices of religion have to tailor with social responsibility (p. 147-178). This means the achieving goals is certainly indicated by successful daily social life and vice versa. On other word, religion practices fundamentally take account on social life conditions.

For the implementation of the above ideology and reformation both in religion domain and social aspects; Jainuri emphasizes three points that could be recommendation for our leaders, politicians, workers and all people that; tailoring religion to social life must be synergized and proven by real works, not merely talks but actions, and limits numbers of comments while working.


[3] Chatolic Encyclopedia, available at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12765b.htm

[4] Paper #049201 :: The Catholic Church during the European Renaissance

Notes on Principles of Education

Principle of Education, Private Notes

By: Herri Mulyono

Course Description

This course is to discuss and analyze concepts and theories on education as one of discipline of academic sciences to be the resources in predicting and applying in Indonesia in the frame of guiding and directing the growth and development of children since the birth to adults on basis of the potentialities, competence on talents which they have.

Two roles of human in life:

  1. Homo educandum, which means person who needs to be educated; e.g. child
  2. Homo educandus, which means person who must educate; e.g. adult

Theory and Concept of Science

Theory is the science comes from many experiences on something frequently and it is tested the truth, then it composes logically, lucidly and clearly, and use for guidance for action.

Concept is the frame of thinking on something that it can be explained clearly and detail so someone can understand it.

A concept can be an abstract and concrete. The abstract concept can be like money, animal while the concrete concept can be like Rp. 100 and lion.

According to Sigmon Frud, human comprises of:

–         Id, lower personality (principle of reality); like wishing, desire

–         Ego, idea (the principle of idea)

–         SuperEgo, to steer and control Id and Ego (conscience)

Fundamentals Meanings of Education

The term education conveys two basic meanings; 1) to educate, and 2) educare (from Latin) which means to pull out, to bring out. Wilhelm Wund (from experimental psychology 1875) at Leipzig University) says Education is from “educare” or to pull out.

Research mentions that human body has many hidden potentials (such as skill, talent, gifted, thought, speaking ability, intelligence, motive, etc.) or power that the aim of education is to pull out those hidden potentials to be reality and useful.

The Formulation of Education

Education is formulated by: (Culturaam Et Homo Sapiens)

1)      Thinking (philosophy)

Plato provides the nature in two nuvuo

a.       Organic, such as:

Flora (grow-develop but no movement-has generation but no desire),

Animal (grow-develop-moving-has generation and desire)

Human beings (grow-develop-moving-generation-passion-thinking)

Devil (grow-moving-influencing to be bad)

Angle (moving-surrender-obidence)

b.      An Organic, such as stone, water, soil, land, sand, etc.

2)      Human need

Two reasons human need education:

Homo educandum: to have to be taught

Homo educandus: who educate/ teacher

3)      History (religion including tradition)

Philosophy

The term philosophy comes from the latin of Philein and Sophia. Philein means much thinking something deeply while Sophia means virtue or wisdom.

According to Socrates, philosophy is radical thinking which is delivered holistically and in depth. In this opinion, philosophy covers not only the motivation to respond all out coming inquires but also deliver analysis on the answer human may give.

In the view of science discipline, philosophy is the discipline concerned with the questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).

Some of outstanding Indonesian Education Philosopher are:

–         Ki Hajar Dewantoro

–         RA Kartini

–         Muh. Syafei

–         Ki Ahmad Dahlan

–         Rohana Kudus

–         Rahmah El Yunusiah

–         Dewi Sartika

Roles of Education in Social Order

Social order is the special social situation that influences people in its environment.

There are some pointers in social order:

1)      Tradition (under developing country)

2)      Transitional Order (preparing to be developing country)

3)      Modern Society (establishing country)

Why does Education become the essence of Culture?

1)      By having proper education, people would come into some understanding on norms and other codes of conduct in human relation

2)      Education could anticipate further development of human own culture

The Profession of Teaching

Profession is an occupation visually by involving relatively long specialized preparation on the level of higher education and governed by its own code of ethics.

Components of Education

  1. Homo educandus: people who teach like teacher, educator, parents, leader
  2. Objective of education

Education aims at enabling students or children to be intelligent, responsibility and mature, having sense of belonging, responsible to god nation and their surrounding

  1. Environment (Milleu) is something in surrounding which gives influence a little or much unconsciously such as textile, spectacle, book, blackboard etc.
  2. Subject matter

It is what is going to teach like religion, good charity, good action, behavior, manner.

  1. Evaluation in form of reward or punishment.

Long Life Education VS Life Long Education

Long life education        : to get education in the rest of life, or as long as life, from

the birth up to death or from carrying up to the death

Life long education        : to get the life long by means of healthy, vitamin, sport,

mental hygiene, regular life

Pioneer of life long education:

  1. Islam – Muhammad

There is a hadits say:

Gain the knowledge from carrying up to death

  1. Edwin R Guthril (1886-1959)

“condition” (conditioning theory) – the primary law of association by contiguity.

  1. Sigmund Freud

“All stimuli come into our brain by mean of ears caught by brain and then keep in the rest of life, because the brain consists of 20 million neurons. Every neuron has one function as biological unit. Among them is to remember.”

According to Freud, human mind consists of three levels:

–         consciousness

–         under conscious

–         unconscious

Reasons of the need of Long life education

  1. The age of human is long, so it stimulates him to seek, collect the science and technology.
  2. Homo sapiens have many needs for himself, family and so on.
  3. Homo sapiens are homo socious (social creature), so he cannot live without other people’s help.
  4. Experience is the best teacher, so human learns from milleu, surrounding, nature, accident, animals, flora, fauna, etc.
  5. Social change, human must learn and get survived.
  6. Every human has potentiality to speak because he has speech organ for the activation he ought to learn.

Motive and Motivation

Motive and motivation – comes from the word of motivum (latin).

Two types of motive

  1. intrinsic motive, the motive which come from human internal
  2. extrinsic motive, the motive that comes from milleu or surrounding without consciousness or accidentally by chance.

Motivation

Motivation is the noun of the motivated consciousness; provoke, to be active in participation at any activity, to drive motivation come from outside by planning and destination. For example: Teachers motivate his student to be diligent in learning and make the readiness to face national exam.

According to Donald O Hebbin:

Motivation is a drive and conceptual nervous (CCNS).

There are four ways for teacher to hoe or stimulate his student act to be active in learning, let learning done or together in-group as follow:

1)      arousal

2)      expectancy

3)      punishment

4)      intensives

The Duty and Responsibility of Education

Duty

Duty is an obligation or something ought to do on behalf of institution, or believer by a person, a group of person, because who gets duty that is regarded or is obligation to do, such obligation being usually moral, but sometimes legal or conceptual.

Responsibility

Responsibility is the duty of each person, to try to understand what the command good is and to act in accordance with or the duty of a group to share in community, at school or educational institution undertaking (responsibility) in relation with the welfare of individual or group, in this case is to guide, to educate, and to make students clever and to be good person and citizen.

Educational Environment

Informal Environment of Education

Description                   : home or nuclear family (father, mother)

Responsible                  : parents (father, mother)

Purpose                        : to prepare children for the future by means of daily life

education

to make students become good social members

Subject matters : tradition, religion, day life, social norms

Time period                  : no limitation for education but generally up to get married

Formal Environment of Education

Description                   : school or other the institution of education

Reason                         : parents have limited capability to educate their children

lacking of time or academic science

school is managed by expert in many kinds of scientific

knowledge especially teacher with their CBTE

(competency based teacher education)

Purpose                        : Stated in the law of Sisdiknas No. 20/ 2003 Chapter II

“The national education aims at developing the ability and shaping the nature, as well national civilization in order to develop the mentality of nation for the development of the students so that they can become religious and pious people to the God, have good character, erudite, creative, independent and become a democrat citizen and responsible to the nation.”

Time Period                  : depend on level of education, level of institute

Non-formal Environment of Education

Description                   : social academic environment, like social organization

religious organization

Responsibility               : social leaders, executive, religious expert

Reason                         : social leader should guide people as a whole to be a good

social member

Purpose                        : to make everybody to be person in his daily life one

another salute and take care the peace, no quarreling or

unbelievable each other

Subject matters : skill, social welfare, languages, virtue, social regulation

Time period                  : generally life long education