Regret: A Grammatical Formula

Regret Formula: Subject + should + have + v3 ==== look at the example below:

I regret because I hit his car = I should not have hit (V3) his car

Positive                                                          negative

I regret because I didn’t give her a flower = I should have given her a flower

Negative                                                                                              positive

I regret because yesterday I didn’t come to school = I should have come to school yesterday

I regret because yesterday I didn’t eat = I should have eaten yesterday

I feel bad because I refused (rejected) her love = I should have received (accepted) her love == using antonym rather than “not”

I feel bad because I didn’t go to Bali = I should have gone to Bali

Formula = Subject + should + have + v3

I shouldn’t have leaved her in the rail way station (negative)

Fact = I leaved her (positive) = antonym verb

Regret = I regret that I leaved her in the rail way station



Report: An Introduction

By: Herri Mulyono

Report can be defined as a piece of text that represents information about a subject. It is proposed “to classify” and or “to describe” using facts about the subject parts, behavior, and qualities.” A report might be similar with a descriptive text. Yet, what makes different is the subject (talked in report paragraph) is usually GENERAL rather than particular. For example: “Skin” rather than an individual person’s skin.

Similarly with other types of text, a report can be composed by three elements; introduction, body, and conclusion. The first introduction begins with a brief description about the issue (subject). This introduction might cover clear definition about the subject. Then, the body paragraph provide more detailed information about the subject that the conclusion will give either comprehensive analysis about the subject or the writer’s subjective opinion.

A report text can be easily composed by paying more attention to the use of simple present tense (that use verb 1) and some technical term of the subject being discussed such as Chemistry: molecule, calories or Math: integral, equity.

The example of Report text can be seen below:

A galaxy is a collection of stars and other astronomical bodies, including planets, comets and asteroids.

Galaxies come in different shapes and size. This include the spiral, barrel-spiral and elliptical. Our galaxy, called the Milky Way, is approximately 100.000 light years in width and contain over 100 billion stars.

At this point in time, no one knows the exact number of galaxies in the universe. Astronomers are learning more and more about them every day. (Adapted from book Type of Text)

Below you’ll see in comment some more samples on Report written down by my students:


Narrative: an Introduction

By Herri Mulyono

Narrative is a piece of text which is proposed to amuse, entertain and to relate with extravagant experiences delivered in many alternatives. While dealing with certain experiences, a narrative might be put similarly with what is called by recount which is closely about personal facts or other individual incidents or events.

In simple way, a narrative text is structured firstly by having orientation which introduces the readers about the setting of the story; either the place setting or time, or might be both of them. It is also to recognize who are the players or any one who takes account in the story. After the orientation is set, then story flows to an introductory stage that later move to the complication where certain conflicts are found between the players. The final stage of resolution is revealed as problem solving stage when the conflict is intensively down.

In addition, in some narrative texts, some author might also put the stage or re-orientation which tries to make evaluation toward the previous orientation. Also they place coda at the end of the story for the readers to make any evaluation of the incidents or every flows in the story.

Our curriculum (see standard competence of English by Diknas: 2003) has described widely that narrative could be also recognized by its lexio-grammatical structure such as : 1) it focuses on specific and usually individualized, participants, 2) it uses of Material Processes (and in this text,

Behavioral and Verbal Processes, 3) the use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes is devised to lead the story, 4) it uses of temporal conjunctions and temporal Circumstances, and finally 4) the narrative uses of past tense.

Here, below you could see some narratives found by my students: